# Working remotely

Sometimes you need to work on a computer different to the one that is in front of you. This may be because you are working from home and need to log into your work computer. Alternatively it may be because you need to do some work on a high-performance computing cluster.

In this chapter we will cover tools for logging into remote machines using the SSH (Secure SHell) protocol. SSH is an open standard that is available on all UNIX based systems. In fact it has gained so much traction that Microsoft have decided to add support for it in Windows.

## Jargon busting

Although, it is relatively simple to log into a remote machine using SSH explaining it requires the use of some networking terminology (as we are logging into the remote machine over a network). Let us therefore start off with some jargon busting before we get into the practical details.

A computer can be connected to a network using physical Ethernet cables or in a wireless fashion using WiFI. Computers connected to the same network can communicate with each other. This communication takes place over so called “ports”, which are identified by numbers. A famous port is port 80, which is used for HTTP (the HyperText Transfer Protocol) a.k.a. web-browsing. There are many other ports. For example port 443 is used for HTTPS and port 22 is used for SSH.

Machines on a network can be identified and accessed via their IP (Internet Protocol) address. An IP address that you may have come across is 127.0.0.1, it identifies the local machine that you are working on.

Although very useful, IP addresses can be difficult to remember. In order to overcome this problem, internet service providers as well as the people responsible for looking after your organisations network make use of domain name servers (DNS). The purpose of a DNS server is to translate unique resource locations (URLs) to IP addresses.

A DNS server can also be used to lookup the IP address of a machine given a simpler more memorable name. To illustrate this we can find the IP address(es) of Google’s web servers using the command host.

$host www.google.com www.google.com has address 62.164.169.148 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.185 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.163 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.177 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.166 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.152 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.155 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.154 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.176 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.159 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.165 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.181 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.187 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.170 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.144 www.google.com has address 62.164.169.174 www.google.com has IPv6 address 2a00:1450:4009:810::2004  If you copy and paste one of the IP addresses above into a web browser you should see the Google home page. Throughout the remainder of this chapter we will connect to remote machines using their hostname. What happens in practise is that your institutes DNS server translates this hostname to an IP address and you send your communications over the network to the machine identified by that IP address. Furthermore when you communicate with the remote machine you will be using a specific port. The default port for the SSH protocol is port 22. ## Logging in using the Secure Shell protocol In its most basic form the ssh command takes on the form ssh hostname. Where hostname is the name of the remote machine that you want to log in to. This assumes that you want to login to the remote machine using the same user name as that on the local machine. This is often not the case and it is common to see the ssh command in the form ssh user@hostname, where user is the Unix user name you want to log in as on the remote machine. Let us illustrate this with an example. Suppose that one wanted to login to a remote computer named hpc, this could for example be the head node on your institutes high-performance computing cluster. Assuming that your user name on the head node was olssont then you could log in using the command below. $ ssh olssont@hpc


Avertissement

All of the remote machines in this chapter are fictional. This means that if you try to run the commands verbatim you will see errors along the lines of the below.

ssh: Could not resolve hostname ...


When trying these examples make sure that you are trying to connect to a machine that exists on your network.

If the machine that you are trying to log in to has a port 22 open (the default SSH port) you will be prompted for your password.

The above assumes that your DNS server can resolve the name hpc into an IP address. Depending on how things are setup in your organisation you may need to use a more explicit name, for example hpc.awesomeuni.ac.uk.

$ssh olssont@hpc.awesomeuni.ac.uk  If your user name and password authenticates successfully the shell in your terminal will now be from the remote machine. To find out the name of the machine that you are logged into you can run the command hostname. $ hostname
hpc


To disconnect from the remote host you can use Ctrl-D or the exit command.

$exit$ hostname
olssont-laptop


In the above the hostname command prints out the hostname of the local machine.

By default port 22 is used for the SSH protocol. However, sometimes a machine may expose its SSH server on a different port. For example if we had a machine called bishop that exposed its SSH server on port 2222 one could login to it using the command below.

$ssh -p 2222 olssont@bishop  In the above the -p flag is used to specify the port to connect to. Sometimes you want to be able to run software that makes use of windowing systems (i.e. all software with a graphical user interface). For example the statistical software package R has built in functionality for displaying plots in a graphical window, which means it requires a windowing system. Most Unix-based systems make use of the X11 as their windowing system. We therefore need to enable X11-forwarding in SSH to be able to run programs that require graphics. This is achieved using the -X flag. $ ssh -X olssont@pawn


In the above we are connecting to a machine named pawn with X11-forwarding enabled.

## Copying files using Secure Copy

Now that we know how to login to a remote machine we need to work out how to copy data to and from it. This is achieved using the scp, secure copy, command.

Suppose that we wanted to copy the file mydata.csv over to olssont‘s home directory on the hpc head node, we could achieve this using the command below.

$scp mydata.csv olssont@hpc:  Note the colon (:) after the host name. It demarcates the end of the host name and the beginning of the location to copy the file to on the remote machine. In this instance the latter is left empty and as such the original file name is used and the location for the file defaults to olssont‘s home directory on the remote machine. The command above is equivalent to that below which specifies the home directory using a relative path (~/). $ scp mydata.csv olssont@hpc:~/


It is also possible to specify the location using an absolute path. For example if we wanted to save the file in the /tmp directory this could be achieved using the command below.

$scp mydata.csv olssont@hpc:/tmp/  Just like with the cp command it is possible to give the copied file a different name. For example to name it data.csv (and place it in the /tmp directory) one could use the command below. $ scp mydata.csv olssont@hpc:/tmp/data.csv


If the SSH server is listening on a port other than 22 one needs to specify the port explicitly. Confusingly the argument for this is not the same as for the ssh command. The scp command uses the argument -P, i.e. it uses upper rather than lower case. So if we wanted to copy the data to bishop, where the SSH server is listening on port 2222 one could use the command below.

$scp -P 2222 mydata.csv olssont@bishop:  Sometimes one wants to copy the entire content of a directory. In this case one can use the -r option to recursively copy all the content of the specified directory. For example if we had a directory named data and we wanted to copy it to pawn one could use the command below. $ scp -r data/ olssont@pawn:


All of the commands above will prompt you for your password. This can get tedious. In the next section we will look at a more secure and less annoying way of managing the authentication step when working with remote machines.

## Password-less authentication using SSH keys

An alternative and more secure method to using password based authentication is to use public-key cryptography. Public-key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography, uses a pair of so called “keys”. One of these keys is public and one is private. The public key is one that you can distribute freely, in this case to all the remote machines that you want to be able to login to. However, the private key must never be compromised as it is what allows you access to all the remote machines. One way to think about this system is to view the public key as a lock that only the private key can open. You can fit the all the machines that you want secure access to with copies of the same public key as long as you keep the private key safe.

Enough theory let’s try it out.

The first step is to generate a public/private key pair. This is achieved using the command ssh-keygen. This will prompt you for the file to save the key as, the default ~/.ssh/id_rsa file is a good option if you have not yet setup any key pairs. You will then be prompted, to optionally, enter a passphrase. This provides another layer of protection in case someone gets hold of your private key. However, it does mean that you will be prompted for the passphrase the first time you make use of the key in a newly booted system. Personally, I am paranoid so I make use of the passphrase and I suggest that you do too.

$ssh-keygen Generating public/private rsa key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/home/olssont/.ssh/id_rsa): Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again:  If you used the default naming scheme for your key pair you should now have two files in your .ssh directory: id_rsa (your private key) and id_rsa.pub (your public key). $ ls -l .ssh/
-rw-------  1 olssont  NR4\Domain Users   1679 23 Feb  2015 id_rsa
-rw-r--r--  1 olssont  NR4\Domain Users    407 23 Feb  2015 id_rsa.pub


Note that only the user has read/write permissions on the private key, whereas the pubic key is readable by everyone.

Now let us setup password-less login to the cluster head node. First of all let us copy the public key to the remote machine using scp.

$scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub olssont@hpc:  Now we need to login to the head node to configure it. At this point we will still need to use our password. Once logged into the head node we need to create a .ssh directory in the user’s home directory (if it does not already exist). We then need to append the public key to a file named authorized_keys in the .ssh directory. Finally we logout of the head node. $ ssh olssont@hpc
$hostname hpc$ mkdir .ssh
$cat id_rsa.pub >> .ssh/authorized_keys$ exit


Now we should be able to ssh and scp to the head node in a password-less fashion. If you setup your key pair using a passphrase you will be prompted for it the first time you use the key pair.

Great that’s really cool! However, it was quite a lot of work to get the public key onto the remote machine. There is a better way to do this using the program ssh-copy-id. Depending on the operating system that you are using may need to install this program, see Managing your system for details on how to install software.

Once you have ssh-copy-id on your system you can provision a remote machine with your public key using a single command. Below we use it to add our pubic key to bishop.

$ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub olssont@bishop  The optional -i flag is used to specify which public key should be copied to the remote machine. ## Managing your login details using SSH config Suppose that access to your institutes cluster was setup in a way that required you to use the full hpc.awesomeuni.ac.uk host name, but that you wanted to be able to login using the shorter name hpc. You can configure your machine to setup access in this fashion by creating the file .ssh/config file and adding the lines below to it. Host hpc HostName hpc.awsomeuni.ac.uk User olssont  The SSH configuration above also specifies the user name. This means that you can login to the head node using the command below (note the lack of a user name). $ ssh hpc


As you start using SSH keys to manage access to various machines you are likely to find yourself using multiple key pairs. In this case you will want to be able to specify the name of the private key, also known as an identity file, in the .ssh/config file.

Host hpc
HostName hpc.awsomeuni.ac.uk
User olssont
IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa


Finally in the examples described earlier access to bishop had been configured to use port 2222. To configure access to this remote machine we could use the specification below.

Host bishop
HostName bishop
User olssont
Port 2222
IdentityFile ~/.ssh/id_rsa


Again, using the .ssh/config file in this way means that we do not need to remember port numbers and what options to invoke the scp and ssh commands with. Copying a file can then be achieved using the concise syntax below.

$scp mydata.csv bishop:  Logging in to the machine becomes similarly trivial. $ ssh bishop


## Executing long running commands on remote hosts

One problem that one can encounter when working on a remote machine is that if the connection is broken whilst a program is running it may fail.

Luckily, it is quite easy to work around this. All one needs to do is to prefix the command to run the program of interest with nohup. The nohup command makes the program of interest immune to hangups.

To see this in action open up two terminals on your computer. In one of them we will monitor the running processes using the command top.

$top  This should display a lot of information about the current running processes. To make things a little easier to digest we can limit the output to the processes owned by you. Press U, which will prompt you for a user name. Enter your user name and press enter. You should now only see the processes owned by you. In the second terminal we will simulate a long running program using the command sleep, which simply pauses execution for a specified number of seconds. $ sleep 3600


In the first terminal, running top, you should now see the sleep program running.

Now close the second terminal, the one in which you are running the sleep command. Note that the sleep program disappears from the top display. This is because the program was interrupted by the closing of the terminal.

Open a new terminal. This time we will prefix the sleep command with nohup.

\$ nohup sleep 3600


Now close the terminal running the sleep command again. Note that the sleep command is still present in the top display. It will keep running until it is finished in an hours time.

## Key concepts

• You can use the ssh command to login to remote machines
• You can copy data to and from remote machines using the scp command
• You can use SSH keys to avoid having to type in your password every time you want to interact with a remote machine
• Using SSH keys is also more secure than using passwords
• If you need to interact with many remote machines it may make sense to create a .ssh/config file
• You can use nohup to ensure that long running processes are not killed by losing connection to the remote machine